Commentary on the Katha Upanishad
by Swami Krishnananda

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Section 1: Nachiketas’ Position

Shanti Mantra

auṁ sa ha nāv avatu, saha nau bhunaktu, saha vīryam karavāvahai,
tejasvi nav adhītam astu: mā vidviṣāvahai; auṁ śāntih, śāntih, śāntih.

OM! May He protect us both (teacher and pupil). May He cause us both to enjoy the bliss of Mukti. May we both exert to find out the true meaning of the scriptures. May our studies be fruitful. May we never quarrel with each other.

Nachiketas and His Father

1.1.1 uśan ha vai vājaśravasaḥ sarva-vedasaṁ dadau: tasya ha naciketā nāma putra āsa.
Once, desirous of heaven, the son of Vajasravasa (Gautama) gave (in a sacrifice) all that he possessed. He had a son Nachiketas by name.
1.1.2 taṁ ha kumāraṁ santaṁ dakṣiṇāsu nīyamānāsu śraddhā-viveśa, so’manyata..
When the presents were being distributed, filial anxiety (about the welfare of his father) entered into the heart of Nachiketas, who was still a boy, and he thought.
1.1.3 pītodakā jagdha-tṛṇā dugdha-dohā nirindriyāḥ anandā nāma te lokās tān sa gacchata tā dadat.
Joyless verily are those worlds to which a man goes by giving (presents in a sacrifice) cows which have drunk water, eaten grass, given their milk and are barren.
1.1.4 sa hovāca pitaram, tāta kasmai māṁ, dāsyasīti; dvitīyaṁ tṛtīyam; taṁ hovāca: mṛtyave tvā dadāmīti.
Nachiketas said to his father: O father, to whom wilt thou give me? He said this again and for the third time, the (enraged) father said: To Death I will give thee.
1.1.5 bahῡnām emi prathamaḥ, bahῡnām madhyamaḥ; kiṁ svid yamasya kartavyam yan mayādya kariṣyati.
Nachiketas thought: Among many I go as the first; among many I go in the middle. What will be the work of Yama which today he has to do unto me?
1.1.6 anupaśya yathā pῡrve pratipaśya tathāpare, sasyam iva martyaḥ pacyate sasyam ivajāyate punaḥ.
Nachiketas: Remember how our forefathers acted; consider also how others now act. Like corn, the mortal decays and like corn he is born again. (Nachiketas entered into the abode of Yama Vaivasvata. There was no one to receive him. Yama had gone out.)

Nachiketas in the House of Death

1.1.7 vaiśvānaraḥ praviśaty atithir brāhmaṇo gṛhān: tasyaitāṁ śāntiṁ kurvanti, hara vaivasvatodakam.
A Brahmin guest enters a house like fire. For him men give this peace-offering (to quench the fire or quiet him). Bring water, O Vaivasvata (O son of Vivasvan, the Sun).
1.1.8 āśā-pratīkṣe saṁgataṁ sῡnṛtāṁ ceṣṭāpῡrte putra-paśῡṁś ca sarvān etad vṛṅkte puruṣasyālpamedhaso yasyānaśnan vasati brāhmaṇo gṛhe.
Hope, expectation, company with good men, friendly discourse, sacrifices, pious gifts, sons and cattle—all these are destroyed in the case of the ignorant man, in whose house a Brahmin guest stays without taking food.

Yama’s Address to Nachiketas

1.1.9 tisro rātrīr yād avatsīr gṛhe me’naśnan brahman atitthir namasyaḥ. namaste’ṡtu, brahman; svasti me’stu; tasmāt prati trīn varān vṛṇīṣva.’
Yama: O Brahmin, as thou a venerable guest, hast dwelt in my house three nights without eating, therefore choose now three boons in return. O Brahmin, my prostrations unto thee. May good befall me.

Nachiketas's First Wish

1.1.10 śānta-saṁkalpaḥ sumanā yathā syād vīta-manyur gautamo mābhi mṛtyo, tvat-prasṛṣṭam mābhivadet pratīta, etat trayāṇām prathamaṁ varaṁ vṛṇe.
Nachiketas: O Death! As the first of the three boons, I choose that Gautama, my father, be pacified, kind and free from anger towards me, and that he may know me and greet me, when I shall be sent away by thee.
1.1.11 yathā purastād bhavitā pratīta auddālakir āruṇir matprasṛṣṭaḥ, sukhaṁ rātrīś śayitā vītamanyus tvāṁ dadṛśivān mṛtyumukhāt pramuktam.
Yama: Through my favour, Auddalaki, the son of Aruni, will recognise you as before. He will sleep peacefully at night and when he sees you released from the mouth of death, will lose his anger.

Nachiketas's Second Wish

1.1.12 svarge loke na bhayaṁ kiṁ ca nāsti na tatra tvaṁ na jarayā bibheti. ubhe tīrtvā aśanāyā pipāse śokātigo modate svarga-loke.
Nachiketas: In the heaven there is no fear; thou art not there, O Death, and no one is afraid on account of old age. Having conquered both hunger and thirst, one rejoices in heaven, being above sorrow.
1.1.13 sa tvam agniṁ svargyam adhyeṣi mṛtyo, prabrῡhi taṁ śraddadānāya mahyam, svarga-lokā amṛtatvam bhajanta, etad dvitīyena vṛṇe vareṇa.
Nachiketas: O Death! Thou knowest the fire-sacrifice which leads us to heaven; explain it to me, for I am full of faith. Those who live in the world attain immortality—this I ask as my second boon.
1.1.14 pra te bravīmi tad u me nibodha svargyam agniṁ naciketaḥ prajānan anantalokāptim atho pratiṣṭhāṁ viddhi, tvam etaṁ nihitaṁ guhāyām.
Yama: I will tell thee well, learn it from me, O Nachiketas. I know the fire that leads to heaven; know the fire which leads to heaven (which is the cause of acquiring infinite worlds), and which again is the support of the universe and which is seated in the cavity (of the heart).
1.1.15 lokādim agniṃ tam uvāca tasmai, yā iṣṭakā, yāvatīr vā, yathā vā. sa cāpi tat pratsvadat yathoktam; athāsya mṛtyuḥ punar evāha tuṣṭaḥ.
Yama then explained to him that fire-sacrifice, the source of the worlds, what bricks are required for the altar, how many and how they are to be placed, and Nachiketas repeated all as explained. Then Yama, being pleased with him, said again.
1.1.16 tam abravīt prīyamāṇo mahātmā varaṁ tavehādya dadāmi bhῡyaḥ. tavaiva nāmnā bhavitāyam agniḥ, sṛṅkāṁ cemām aneka-rῡpāṁ gṛhāṇa.
Satisfied, magnanimous Death spoke to him: I give thee here this other boon, this fire-sacrifice shall be named after thee, and take thou this many-coloured chain.
1.1.17 triṇāciketas tribhir etya sandhiṁ trikarma-kṛt tarati janma-mṛtyῡ, brahmajajñaṁ devam īḍyam viditvā nicāyye’māṁ śāntim atyantam eti.
Whoever performs three times this sacrifice of Nachiketas fire and has been united with the three (father, mother and teacher) and has performed the three duties (study, sacrifice and alms-giving) overcomes birth and death. When he has understood this adorable bright, the omniscient fire born of Brahman and realised him, then he obtains everlasting peace.
1.1.18 triṇāciketas trayam etad viditvā ya evaṁ vidvāṁś cinute nāciketam, mṛtyu-pāśān purataḥ praṇodya śokātigo modate svarga-loke.
He who knows the three Nachiketa fires, and propitiates the Nachiketa fire with this knowledge, throws off the chains of death, goes beyond sorrow and rejoices in heaven.
1.1.19 eṣa te’gnir nachiketas svargyo yam avṛṇīthāḥ dvitīyena vareṇa. etam agnim tavaiva pravakṣyanti janāsas; tṛtīyaṁ varaṁ naciketo vṛṇīṣva.
This, O Nachiketas, is thy fire which leads to heaven and which thou hast chosen as thy second boon; people will call this fire thine alone. Choose now, O Nachiketas, thy third boon.

Nachiketas's Third Wish

1.1.20 yeyam prete vicikitsā manuṣye ‘stīty eke nāyam astīti caike; etat vidyām anuśiṣṭas tvayāham, varāṇām eṣa varas tṛtīyaḥ.
Nachiketas: There is that doubt when a man is dead, some say he is and some he is not this I should like to know, taught by thee. This is the third of my boons.
1.1.21 devair atrāpi vicikitsitam purā, na hi suvijñeyam, aṇur eṣa dharmaḥ, anyaṁ varaṁ naciketo vṛṇīṣva, mā moparotsīr ati mā sṛjainam.
Yama: On this point even the gods of olden times had doubt. Verily it is not easy to understand it—subtle is its nature. O Nachiketas, choose another boon; do not press me on this; give this up for me.
1.1.22 devair atrāpi vicikitsitaṁ kila, tvaṁ ca mṛtyo yan na suvijñeyam āttha, vaktā cāsya tvādṛg-anyo na labhyaḥ; nānyo varas tulya etasya kaścit.
Nachiketas: Thou sayest, O Death, that even the gods had doubts here and that this is not easy to know. Another teacher like thee is not to be found; surely, there is no other boon like this.
1.1.23 śatāyuṣaḥ putra-pautrān vṛṇīṣva, bahῡn paśῡnhasti-hiraṇ-yam aśvān bhῡmer mahad-āyatanaṁ vṛṇīṣva svayaṁ ca jīva śarado yāvad icchasi.
Yama: Choose sons and grandsons who may live a hundred years, herds of cattle, elephants, gold and horses. Choose the wide abode of the earth and live yourself as many years as you like.
1.1.24 etat tulyam yadi manyase, varaṁ vṛṇīṣva, vittaṁ cira-jīvikāṁ ca, mahā-bhῡmau nachiketas tvam edhi, kāmānāṁ tvā kāmabhājaṁ karomi.
Yama: If you can think of any boon equal to that, choose wealth and long life. Be a king, O Nachiketas, of the wide earth, I shall make thee the enjoyer of all desires.
1.1.25 ye ye kāmā durlabhā martya-loke sarvān kāmāṁś chandataḥ prārthayasva. imā rāmāḥ, sarathāḥ satῡryāḥ, na hīdṛśā lambhanīyā manuṣyaiḥ. ābhir mat-prattābhiḥ paricārayasva, naciketo, maraṇam mānuprākṣīḥ.
Yama: Whatever desires are difficult to attain in the world of mortals, ask for them according to thy wish. These fair maidens with their chariots and musical instruments—such are indeed not enjoyable by mortals; be attended by them, I will give them to thee; but, O Nachiketas! Do not ask the question of the state of the Soul after death.
1.1.26 śvo-bhāvā martyasya yad antakaitat sarvendriyāṇām jarayanti tejaḥ api sarvaṁ jīvitam alpam eva tavaiva vāhās tava nṛtya-gīte.
Nachiketas: These things last till tomorrow (ephemeral). O Death, they wear out the vigour of all the senses. Even the longest life is verily short. Keep thou thy chariots, the dance and music.
1.1.27 na vittena tarpaṇīyo manuśyaḥ, lapsyāmahe vittam adrākṣma cet tvā, jīviṣyāmo yāvad īśiṣyasi tvaṁ varastu me varaṇīyaḥ sa eva.
Nachiketas: No man can be made happy by wealth. If we should obtain wealth and behold thee, we would only live as long as thou shalt sway. Only that boon which I have chosen is fit to be longed by me.
1.1.28 ajīryatām amṛtānām upetya jīryan martyaḥ kvadhasthaḥ prajānan abhidhyāyan varṇaratipramodān, atidīrghe jīvite ko rameta
Nachiketas: What decaying mortal living in the world below and possessed of knowledge, after having approached the company of the undecaying and the immortal, will rejoice in long life, after he has pondered over the nature of the pleasures produced by song and sport (beauty and love)?
1.1.29 yasminn idam vicikitsanti mṛtyo yat sāmparāye mahati brῡhi nas tat, yo’yaṁ varo gῡḍham anupraviṣṭo nānyaṁ tasmān naciketā vṛṇīte.
Nachiketas: O Death! Tell us that in which men have this doubt, and which is about the great hereafter. Nachiketas does not choose any other boon but that (concerning the Soul) of which the knowledge is hidden.

Section 2: The Existence of the Supreme Being

The Two Ways

1.2.1 anyac chreyo anyad utaiva preyaste ubhe nānārthe puruṣam sinītaḥ: tayoḥ śreya ādadānasya sādhu bhavati, hīyate ‘rthād ya u preyo vṛṇīte.
Yama: One is good, while another is pleasant. These two having different objects chain a man. Blessed is he who, between them chooses the good alone, but he who chooses what is pleasant, loses the true end.
1.2.2 śreyaś ca preyaś ca manuṣyam etas tau samparītya vivinakti dhīraḥ. śreyo hi dhīro’bhipreyaso vṛṇīte, preyo mando yoga-kṣemād vṛṇīte.
Yama: The good and the pleasant take hold of man; the wise man examines and distinguishes them. The wise man prefers the good (Sreya) to the pleasant, but the ignorant man chooses the pleasant (Preya) for the sake of the body.
1.2.3 sa tvam priyān priyarῡpāṁś ca kāmān abhidhyāyan naciketo, tyasrākṣīḥ; naitāṁ sṛṅkāṁ vittamayīm avāpto yasyām majjanti bahavo manuṣyāḥ.
Yama: O Nachiketas, thou hast renounced objects of desires (such as sons and grandsons) and desirable objects of pleasant shape (as the heavenly nymphs), judging them by their real value. Thou hast not chosen the road of wealth, in which many men perish.
1.2.4 dῡram ete viparīte, avidyā yā ca vidyeti jñātā: vidyābhīpsinaṁ Nachiketasam manye, na tvā kāmā bahavo lolupantaḥ.
Yama: These two, ignorance and knowledge, are wide apart and lead to different points or goals. I believe Nachiketas to be one who desires for Knowledge, for even many desires have not shaken thee.
1.2.5 avidyāyām antare vartamānāḥ, svayaṁ dhīrāḥ paṇḍitam manyamānāḥ. dandramyamāṇāḥ pariyanti mῡdhāḥ, andhenaiva nīyamānā yathāndhāḥ.
Yama: The ignorant, who live in the midst of darkness but fancy themselves as wise and learned, go round and round deluded in many crooked ways, as blind people led by the blind.
1.2.6 na sāmparāyaḥ pratibhāti bālam pramādyantaṁ vittamohena mῡḍham: ayaṁ loko nāsti para iti mānī, punaḥ punar vaśam āpadyate me.
Yama: The way to the hereafter is not apparent to the ignorant man who is foolish, deluded by the delusion of wealth. ‘This is the world,’ he thinks, ‘there is no other’—thus he falls again and again under my sway.
1.2.7 śravaṇāyāpi bahubhir yo na labhyaḥ, śṛṇvanto’pi bahavo yaṁ na vidyuḥ āścaryo vaktā kuśalo’sya labdhā, āścaryo jñātā kuśalānuśiṣṭaḥ.
Yama: He (the Self) of whom many are not even able to hear, whom many, even when they hear of him, do not comprehend; wonderful is a man, when found, who is able to teach the Self; wonderful is he who comprehends the Self, when taught by an able teacher.
1.2.8 na nareṇāvareṇa proktā eṣa suvijñeyo bahudhā cintyamānaḥ: ananya-prokte gatir atra nāsty aṇīyān hy atarkyam aṇupramānāt.
Yama: That Self, when taught by a man of inferior intellect is not easy to be known, as it is to be thought of in various ways. But when it is taught by a preceptor who is one with Brahman (who beholds no difference), there is no doubt concerning it, the Self being subtler than the subtle, and is not to be obtained by arguing.
1.2.9 naiṣā tarkeṇa matir āpaneyā, proktānyenaiva sujñānāya preṣṭha: yāṁ tvam āpas satyadhritir batāsi; tvādṛṅ no bhῡyān naciketaḥ praṣṭā.
Yama: This knowledge is not to be obtained by argument, but it is easy to understand it, O dearest, when taught by a teacher who beholds no difference; thou hast obtained it now; thou art fixed in truth. May we have, O Nachiketas, an enquirer like thee!

The Superiority of Wisdom to Wealth, Earthly as Well as Heavenly

1.2.10 jānāmy aham śevadhir ity anityam, na hy adhruvaiḥ prāpyate hi dhruvaṁ tat tato mayā naciketaś cito’gnir anityair dravyaiḥ prāptavān asmi nityam.
Yama: I know that the treasure is transient, for that eternal is not obtained by things which are not eternal. Therefore, the Nachiketa fire has been propitiated by me with the perishable things and I have obtained the eternal.
1.2.11 kāmasyāptiṁ jagataḥ pratiṣṭhāṁ krator ānantyaṁ abhayasya pāram stoma-mahad urugāyam pratiṣṭhāṁ dṛṣṭvā dhṛtyā dhīro naciketo’tyasrākṣīḥ.
Yama: The end of all desires, the foundation of the world, the endless rewards of sacrifice, the other shore where there is no fear, the praiseworthy, the great, the wide-extended sphere and the abode of the soul—all these thou hast seen, and being wise, O Nachiketas, thou hast with firm resolve rejected all.
1.2.12 taṁ durdarśaṁ gῡḍham anupraviṣṭaṁ guhāhitaṁ gahvareṣṭham purāṇam adhyātma-yogādhigamena devam matvā dhīro harṣa-śokau jahāti.
Yama: The wise sage who, by means of meditation on his Self, recognises the Ancient, who is difficult to be seen, who is unfathomable and concealed, who is hidden in the cave of the heart, who dwells in the abyss, who is lodged in intelligence, indeed renounces joy and sorrow.
1.2.13 etac chrutvā samparigṛhya martyaḥ pravṛhya dharmyam aṇum etam āpya sa modate modanīyaṁ hi labdhvā vivṛtaṁ sadma nachiketasam manye.
Yama: Having heard and well grasped this (the Self), the mortal, abstracting the virtuous Atman, attaining this subtle Self, rejoices, because he has obtained what is cause for rejoicing. I think that the abode of Brahman is wide open for Nachiketas.
1.2.14 anyatra dharmād anyatrādharmād anyatrāsmāt kṛtākṛtāt. anyatra bhῡtāc ca bhavyāc ca yat tat paśyasi tad vada.
Nachiketas: That which thou seest as other than virtue and vice, other than cause and effect, other than the past and future, tell me that.
1.2.15 sarve vedā yat padam āmananti, tapāṁsi sarvaṇi ca yad vadanti, yad icchanto brahmacaryaṁ caranti, tat te padaṁ saṁgraheṇa bravīmi: aum ity etat.
Yama: The goal (word) which all the Vedas speak of (praise), which all penances proclaim and wishing for which they lead the life of a Brahmacharin, that goal (word) I will briefly tell thee—It is Om.
1.2.16 etadd hy evākṣaram brahma, etadd hy evākṣaram param. etadd hy evākṣaram jñātvā, yo yad icchati tasya tat.
Yama: This word is verily Brahman; this word is verily the highest; he who knows this word, obtains, verily, whatever he desires.
1.2.17 etad ālambanaṁ śreṣṭham etad ālambanam param etad ālambanaṁ jñātvā brahma-loke mahīyate.
Yama: This is the best support. This is the highest support. He who knows this support is worshipped in the world of Brahman.
1.2.18 na jāyate mriyate vā vipaścin nāyaṁ kutaścin na babhῡva kaścit: ajo nityaḥ śaśvato’yam purāṇo na hanyate hanyamāne śarīre.
Yama: The intelligent Atman is not born, nor does He die; He did not spring from anything, and nothing sprang from Him; unborn, eternal, everlasting, ancient, He is not slain although the body is slain.
1.2.19 hantā cen manyate hantuṁ hataś cen manyate hatam, ubhau tau na vijānīto nāyaṁ hanti na hanyate.
Yama: If the slayer thinks ‘I slay,’ if the slain thinks, ‘I am slain,’ then both of them do not know well. This slays not, nor is slain.
1.2.20 aṇor aṇīyān mahato mahīyān, ātmāsya jantor nihito guhāyām: tam akratuḥ paśyati vīta-śoko dhātu-prasādān mahimānam ātmanaḥ.
Yama: The Atman, subtler than the subtle, greater than the great, is seated in the heart of each living being. He who is free from desire, with his mind and the senses composed, beholds the majesty of the Self and becomes free from sorrow.

Opposite Characteristics of the Supreme

1.2.21 āsīno dῡraṁ vrajati, śayāno yāti sarvataḥ: kastam madāmadaṁ devam mad anyo jñātum arharti.
Yama: Sitting He goes far; lying He goes everywhere. Who else, therefore, save myself, is able to comprehend the God who rejoices and rejoices not?
1.2.22 aśarīraṁ śarīreṣu, anavastheṣv avasthitam, mahāntaṁ vibhum ātmānam matvā dhīro na śocati.
Yama: The wise man, who knows the Atman as bodiless, seated firmly in perishable bodies, great and all-pervading, does never grieve.

The Moral Preparation for Brahma-Knowledge

1.2.23 nāyam ātmā pravacanena labhyo na medhayā, na bahunā śrutena: yamevaiṣa vṛṇute, tena labhyas tasyaiṣa ātmā vivṛṇute tanῡṁ svām.
Yama: This Atman cannot be attained by study of the Vedas, nor by intelligence, nor by much hearing. He whom the Self chooses, by him the Self can be gained. To him this Atman reveals Its true nature.
1.2.24 nāvirato duścaritān nāśānto nāsamāhitaḥ nāśānta-mānaso vāpi prajñānenainam āpnuyāt.
Yama: But he who has not turned away from bad conduct, whose senses are not subdued, whose mind is not concentrated, whose mind is not pacified, can never obtain this Atman by knowledge.
1.2.25 yasya brahma ca kṣatraṁ ca ubhe bhavata odanaḥ, mṛtyur yasyopasecanaṁ ka itthā veda yatra saḥ.
Yama: Of whom, the Brahmana and the Kshatriya classes are (as it were) but food, and Death itself a condiment (or pickle), how can one thus know where that Atman is?

Section 3: Sadhana

Two Selves

1.3.1 ṛtam pibantau sukṛtasya loke guhām praviṣṭau parame parārdhe, chāyā-tapau brahma-vido vadanti, pañcāgnayo ye ca tri-ṇāciketāḥ.
Yama: The two who enjoy the fruits of their good works being seated in the cavity of the seat of the Supreme, the knowers of Brahman call them shadow and light, as also the performers of the fivefold fire and those who have propitiated three times the Nachiketa fire.
1.3.2 yas setur ījānānām akṣaram brahma yat param, abhayam titīrṣatām pāram nāciketaṁ śakemahi.
Yama: We are able to understand both, the Nachiketa fire which is the bridge of all sacrifices (to cross misery) and also the highest, indestructible Brahman, fearless and the refuge for those who wish to cross the ocean of Samsara.

The Parable of the Chariot

1.3.3 ātmānaṁ rathinaṁ viddhi, śarīraṁ ratham eva tu: buddhiṁ tu sāradhiṁ viddhi, manaḥ pragraham eva ca.
Yama: Know the Atman as the Lord of the chariot, the body as the chariot; know the intellect as the charioteer and the mind again as the reins.
1.3.4 indriyāṇi hayān āhur viṣayāṁs teṣu gocarān, ātmendriya-mano-yuktam bhoktety āhur manīṣiṇaḥ.
Yama: They say, the senses are the horses and their objects are the roads; the Atman, the senses and the mind united, the wise call the enjoyer.
1.3.5 yas tv avijñānavān bhavaty ayuktena manasā sadā, tasyendriyāṇy avaśyāni duṣṭāśvā iva sāratheḥ.
Yama: He who has no discrimination and whose mind is always uncontrolled, his senses are not controllable like vicious horses of a driver.
1.3.6 yas tu vijñānavān bhavati, yuktena manasā sadā, tasyendriyāṇi vaśyāni sadaśvā iva sāratheḥ.
Yama: But he who has understanding and whose mind is always controlled, his senses are under control like good horses of a driver.
1.3.7 yas tv avijñānavān bhavaty amanaskas sadā’śuciḥ, na sa tat padam āpnoti saṁsāraṁ cādhigacchati.
Yama: But he, who has no discrimination, and whose mind is not under control, and who is always impure, does not reach that goal, but enters into the round of births and deaths.
1.3.8 yas tu vijñānavān bhavati samanaskas sadā śuciḥ, sa tu tat padam āpnoti yasmāt bhῡyo na jāyate.
Yama: But he, who has understanding, who has his mind always under control, and who is pure, reaches that goal whence he is not born again.
1.3.9 vijñānasārathir yastu manaḥ pragrahavān naraḥ, so’dhvanaḥ param āpnoti tad viṣṇoḥ paramam padam.
Yama: But he who has discerning intelligence as the driver and a well-controlled mind as the reins, reaches the end of his journey, that highest place of Vishnu.

The Order of Progression to the Supreme

1.3.10 indriyebhyaḥ parā hy arthā, arthebhyaś ca param manaḥ, manasaś ca parā buddhir buddher ātmā mahān paraḥ.
Yama: Beyond the senses are the rudiments of objects, beyond these rudiments is the mind, beyond the mind is the intellect, beyond the intellect is the great Self.
1.3.11 mahataḥ param avyaktam, avyaktāt puruṣaḥ paraḥ, puruṣān na paraṁ kiñcit: sā kāṣṭhā, sā parā gatiḥ.
Yama: Beyond the great (Mahat) is the unmanifested (Avyakta). Beyond the Avyakta is the Purusha, beyond the Purusha there is nothing, that is the end, that is the highest goal.

The Method of Yoga

1.3.12 eṣa sarveṣu bhῡteṣu gῡdho’tmā na prakāśate, dṛśyate tvagryayā buddhyā sῡkṣmayā sῡkṣma-darśibhiḥ.
Yama: This Atman is hidden in all beings and does not shine forth, but it is seen by subtle seers through their sharp and subtle intellect.
1.3.13 yacched vāṅ manasī prājñas tad yacchej jñāna-ātmani, jñānam ātmani mahati niyacchet, tad yacchec chānta-ātmani.
Yama: Let the wise sink his speech into the mind, the mind into the intellect and the intellect into the Great Atman and the Great Atman into the Peaceful Atman.
1.3.14 uttiṣṭhata jāgrata prāpya varān nibodhata: kṣurasya dhārā niśitā duratyayā; durgam pathas tat kavayo vadanti.
Yama: Arise, awake, having reached the great (teachers), learn (realise that Atman). Like the sharp edge of a razor is that path, difficult to cross and hard to tread—thus the wise say.
1.3.15 aśabdam asparśam arῡpam avyayam tathā arasaṁ nityam agandhavac ca yat anādy anantam mahataḥ paraṁ dhruvaṁ nicāyya tam mṛtyu-mukhāt pramucyate.
Yama: He, who has known that which is without sound, without touch, without form, without decay, without taste, eternal, without smell, without beginning, without end, beyond the Mahat (great) and unchanging, is freed from the jaws of death.
1.3.16 nāciketam upākhyānam mṛtyu-proktaṁ sanātanam, uktvā śrutvā ca medhāvī brahma-loka mahīyate.
Yama: A wise man who hears and repeats the ancient story of Nachiketas told by Yama, attains glory in the world of Brahman.
1.3.17 ya imam paramaṁ guhyaṁ śrāvayed brahma-saṁsadi, prayataś śrāddha-kāle vā tad ānantyāya kalpate, tad ānantyāya kalpate.
Yama: Whoever with devotion recites before an assembly of Brahmins or at the time of Sraddha of forefathers, this highest secret, obtains thereby immortality, obtains immortality.