Glossary of Sanskrit Terms
by Swami Krishnananda


Dagdhavastha: State of being burnt up by the fire of knowledge; Jivanmukti in which all Karmas, ignorance and all Samskaras get burnt up, and the sage functions with past momentum without being subject to ignorance or Karma. He appears to be embodied though he is not attached to the body.
Daharakasa: Knowledge-space; ether of the heart.
Daitya: A class of mighty beings in whom the diabolical quality predominates; the demons of Hindu Puranas; giant.
Daiva: God who controls all beings and gives them what is their due; fate; destiny; controlling power.
Daivavani: Heavenly voice (actually heard by pure souls).
Daivi: Same as Divya, divine.
Daivisampat: Divine wealth; divine qualities.
Daksha: Expert; intelligent; wise; able.
Dambha: Hypocrisy; pride.
Dana: Charity; giving.
Danda: The staff of a mendicant or a Sannyasin; a kind of physical exercise common in India; punishment.
Dandasakti: Sceptre; the rod of power; power through autocracy or punishment.
Dantadhauti: Cleaning of the teeth.
Darasutaishana: Desire for wife and son (children).
Darbha: A kind of grass held sacred for religious and spiritual purposes.
Darna: Control of the outer senses; one of the sixfold virtues of the Niyama of Raja Yoga.
Darpa: Arrogance; pride.
Darsana: Insight; way of seeing; vision; system of philosophy; making visible.
Dasa: Slave; servant.
Dasavadhana: Doing ten things at a time.
Dasya: The attitude of a devotee expressing the relationship of a servant with God.
Datta: Given; adopted; give.
Daurmanasya: Despair; evil disposition.
Daya: Mercy; compassion.
Deha: Physical body.
Dehabhimana: Egoistic attachment to the body.
Dehadhyasa: False identification with the body.
Dehasuddhi: Purity or purification of the body.
Dehatma-buddhi: The intellect that makes one to identify the Self with the body.
Dehavidya: Physiology.
Dehi: One who has a body; the conscious embodied self; Jiva or the individual soul.
Desa: Place; space; country.
Desa-kala: Space-time.
Desa-kala-sambandha: Extended in space and located in time; having connection with space and time; space-time relation.
Desatita: Spaceless; beyond space.
Devaloka: One of the higher subtler worlds; the world of the gods or the celestials.
Devata: The deity that receives the worship of men and gives them what they desire. The term is also applied to the Lord Who receives the worship of all and gives them what they seek. He is known as the highest Devata.
Devayajna: One of the five daily sacrificial rites enjoined on all householders, in which oblations are offered to various deities.
Devayana: The path of the gods. One of the paths taken by the Jiva after leaving the physical body.
Dhairya: Boldness; courage.
Dhana: Wealth; riches.
Dhanadhanyabala: Money-and grain-power; power of estate and wealth.
Dhanurasana: Bow-posture of the Hatha-yogins.
Dhara: Stream; continuous repetition.
Dharana: Concentration of mind.
Dharanasakti: Power of grasping and retaining the ideas.
Dharanayoga: The Yoga of concentration, before the stage of Dhyana and Samadhi.
Dharma: Righteous way of living, as enjoined by the sacred scriptures; characteristics; virtue.
Dharmadasa: Slave of duty; lawful slave.
Dharmameghasamadhi: The state of superconsciousness or Samadhi is called 'cloud of virtue' in as much as it showers nectar drops of immortality through knowledge of Brahman, when all the hosts of Vasanas are entirely destroyed. The cloud of virtue is the name given to Samadhi in the Ashtanga Yoga of Patanjali.
Dharmaparishat: Assembly of the wise.
Dharmi: Substratum; that which possesses the Dharma.
Dhatu: Element; metal; the vital force in man by conserving which, through celibacy, the Yogi develops Ojas and Tejas.
Dhauti: The exercise for cleaning the stomach in Hatha Yoga.
Dhira: Steadfast; bold; courageous.
Dhivasana: The mind which assumes the finest stage and which then contains in bud-like form all the impressions of actions, has its Vasanas called thus.
Dhriti: (Spiritual) patience and firmness.
Dhumamarga: The path of smoke, as distinguished from the path of light, taken by the Jiva in its heavenward journey; Pitriyana or the path of the manes.
Dhvamsabhava: Non-existence at the third moment from its beginning.
Dhvani: Tone; sound; the subtle aspect of the vital Sakti of the Jiva in the vibration.
Dhvanyatmakasabda: Unlettered sound caused by the striking of two things together which is meaningless.
Dhyana: Meditation; contemplation.
Dhyanagamya: Attainable through meditation.
Dhyanika: Pertaining to Dhyana or meditation.
Dhyeya: Object of meditation or worship; purpose behind action.
Dhyeyarupa: The form for the purpose of meditation.
Dhyeyatyaga: Renunciation of object in meditation; Absolute Experience or Nirvikalpa Samadhi.
Digambara: Naked; clad with the quarters.
Digvijaya: Conquest of the quarters (world), either military or cultural.
Diksakti: The power of illusion that produces the consciousness of space.
Diksha: Initiation; consecration.
Dina: Humble; helpless.
Dinabandhu: Friend of the poor and the helpless, God.
Dinacharya: Daily conduct; daily activity.
Dinadayalu: Merciful towards the helpless.
Dirgha: Long; prolonged.
Dirghasvapna: Long dream; usually referred to show the unreal nature of the world.
Disa: Quarter.
Dishtam: Unseen power in Karma that links up the act and its fruit; destiny or fate.
Divya: Divine; heavenly; celestial; sacred; luminous; supernatural.
Divyachakshu: Divine eye.
Divyachara: Conduct of the godly ones; a Tantric course of spiritual discipline meant for the pure and advanced aspirants.
Divyadrishti: Divine vision.
Divyagandha: Superphysical scent (smell).
Dosha: Defect; shortcoming.
Doshadrishti: The vision that perceives defects.
Drashta: Subject; seer; perceiver.
Dravata: Liquidity.
Dravya: Substance.
Dravyadvaita: Unity of substance or matter.
Dravyagrahana: Appropriation of things.
Dridha: Firm; unshaken.
Dridhabhumi: Well-grounded in any state or state of Yoga.
Dridhasamskara: Well-grounded mental impression.
Dridhasushupti: Deep sleep state.
Dridhata: Firmness.
Drik: Seer; perceiver; vision.
Drishta: The visible; seen; that which is perceived.
Drishtanta: Instance; illustration; example.
Drishtisrishtivada: The doctrine holding that the existence of the world is purely the outcome of the faculty of perception, and that actually nothing exists beyond imagination.
Drisya: Perceived; seen; the world; that which can be seen by the physical sense.
Drisyaprapancha: Phenomenal world that is visible to the eye.
Droha: Treachery; offence.
Duhkha: Pain; misery; sorrow; grief.
Duhkhajihasa: Wish to avoid pain and sorrow.
Duradrishti: Distant vision.
Dushkrita: Demerit; sin; evil action.
Dushtanigraha: Destruction of the wicked.
Dvadasanta: The twelfth centre; the twelfth centre is identified by some with the pituitary centre in the head, there being six centres in the brain, besides the six below the brain.
Dvaita-advaita-vivarjita: Beyond monism and dualism; destitute of both oneness and twoness or multiplicity.
Dvaita-bhava: Feeling of duality.
Dvaitavada: Dualism; the doctrine of dual existence propounded by Madhya.
Dvandva: Pair of opposites.
Dvandvata: State of duality.
Dvandvatita: Beyond the pairs of opposites, like heat and cold, hunger and thirst, pleasure and pain, etc.
Dvarakarana: Intermediate cause; Maya is supposed to be an intermediate cause of the universe, as the unchanging Brahman cannot be an independent cause. That which is not actually the cause but simply a conveying factor of the chief cause, is often found to inhere in the effect. As, for instance, smoothness, etc., of the earth, the actual material cause, are found to exist in the jar, the real effect. They are the intermediate causes, so to say, acting between earth, the actual cause, and the jar, the real effect.
Dvayam: Two; pair.
Dvesha: Repulsion; hatred; dislike.
Dvija: A term used to denote generally the first three of the four castes in Hindu society; twice-born; a Brahmana.
Dviparardha: The two halves of Brahma's life.
Dvyanuka: Diatom.


Eka: One.
Ekabhavika: Unigenital; uninatal; of the same source or nature.
Ekadandi: A Sannyasin who holds one staff only.
Ekadasi: Eleventh day of the Hindu lunar fortnight.
Ekadesika: One-sided; localised.
Ekagrata: One-pointedness of the mind; concentration,
Ekamevadvitiyam: One alone, without a second; Brahman.
Ekamsa: One portion or fraction.
Ekanta: Solitude; seclusion.
Ekantabhava: Feeling of isolation or solitariness.
Ekantavada: Monism.
Ekantika: Final or ultimate; the Absolute.
Ekarasa: Homogeneous; uniform; one essence; Brahman.
Ekarnava: One boundless sea in which state the universe is described figuratively to exist during the dissolution the potential causes of the next creation being described as the waters, Karana Sarira, of this all-pervading sea.
Ekata: Oneness; homogeneity; absoluteness.
Ekatva: Unity; oneness.
Ekayana: Union of thoughts; monotheism.
Eko'ham bahusyam: May I, the One, become many; this describes the primal idea which manifested itself from the One Undivided Being prior to creation.
Eshanatrayam: Three kinds of desires, viz., desire for wealth, son and wife.
Evam: Thus; so; in this manner.


Gada: Disease or fever.
Gada: Club; mace; one of the weapons of Lord Vishnu.
Gadadhara: Wielder of the Gada; an epithet of Lord Vishnu or Krishna.
Gagana: Sky; firmament.
Gaganaravinda: Sky-lotus; a term used to denote an unreal or non-existent thing; the world.
Gamanakriya: Action of going.
Gambhira: Deep; magnanimous; dignified; grand; imperious; grave.
Gambhirya: Gravity of demeanour.
Ganapati: A Hindu deity; success-bestowing aspect of God.
Ganapatya: A Hindu sect worshipping God as Ganapati; a member of this sect; pertaining to this sect.
Gandha: Smell; scent.
Gandharvanagara: Fantastic formations of clouds giving the appearance of mansions and cities; therefore, any fanciful conception; the world.
Gandhatanmatra: Subtle principle or root element of odour.
Garbhodhaka: The primeval waters.
Garhapatya: Household.
Garhapatyagni: One of the three fires of rituals kept by the Hindu householder.
Garhasthya: The second stage of Hindu social life; the married householder's life.
Garima: A power by which a Yogi becomes abnormally heavy; one of the eight major Siddhis.
Garva: Pride; egotism; arrogance.
Gatagati: Going and coming; passage after death.
Gati: State; movement; going.
Gauna: Secondary; indirect.
Gaunabhakti: Culture of devotion through rituals as a preliminary course on the path of love or Bhakti.
Gaunavritti: Figurative sense or secondary sense as in the instances: (1) He is a lion; he is not a lion, but he is as brave as a lion. (2) Agni-manavaka: student is fire; he is not fire, but his face is as brilliant as fire. This is a secondary power or Sakti of words.
Gayatri: One of the most sacred Vedic Mantras or texts of the Hindus.
Gayatrividya: The process of meditation taking Gayatri as the symbol of Brahman.
Ghanaprajna: Massive and undifferentiated consciousness.
Ghatakasa: the space bounded by the jar.
Ghatasuddhi: Purification of the physical body.
Ghrana: Nose.
Ghrina: Compassion; pity; aversion; contempt.
Gita: Song; conventionally refers to the renowned sacred text "Bhagavad Gita"; a philosophical text.
Gonaya: Cow-carrier.
Gotra: Family; lineage; mountain.
Graha: Grip; grasp; planet.
Grahaka: Cogniser; receiver; that which seizes or perceives; sense-organ.
Grahana: Organ; acceptance; reception, eclipse.
Grahya: Fit to be received; sense-object.
Grama: Village; multitude; collection.
Granthi: Tie or knot.
Grihastha: Householder.
Guda: Anus.
Gudha: Hidden.
Gudhavasana: Hidden subtle desire.
Guha: Cave.
Guhya: Secret; genital.
Guhyabhashana: Private talk; one of the breaks of Brahmacharya.
Guna: Quality born of nature.
Gunamaya: Full of qualities or attributes.
Gunasamya: A state where the three Gunas are found in equilibrium; the Supreme Absolute.
Gunasraya: Dependent on Gunas; consort of the qualities.
Gunatita: Beyond the Gunas; one who has transcended the three Gunas.
Gunavada: A statement of quality.
Guni: Possessor of quality or qualities.
Guru: Teacher; preceptor.
Gurukripa: Preceptor's grace or blessings.
Gurumantra: Mantra in which one has been initiated by the Guru.


Halasana: The plough-pose when the body is made to imitate the Indian plough. Hala means plough.
Hamsamantra: The Mantra "Soham" automatically an involuntarily uttered by the Jiva with every act of inspiration and expiration.
Hamsayoga: The teachings of Lord Hari to Brahma an the Kumaras to clear some Yogic doubts. This occurs Srimad Bhagavatam.
Hana: Abandonment.
Hanuman: A powerful deity; the son of Wind-God; great devotee of Sri Rama; the famous Monkey who helpe Rama in His fight with Ravana.
Hari: A being who destroys the evil deeds of those who take refuge in Him. A name of Lord Narayana or Krishna.
Harsha: Exhilaration; joy.
Hasya: Mirth or amusement; fun.
Hathayoga: A system of Yoga, for gaining control over the physical body and Prana; system of Asanas, Pranayama Bandhas, Mudras and Kriyas.
Hetu: Cause; reason.
Hetupanaya: Application of reason.
Hetvabhasa: Fallacious inference or reason.
Himsa: Injury.
Hiranyagarbha: Cosmic intelligence; the Supreme Lord of the universe; also called Brahma, cosmic Pran Sutratma, Apara-brahma, Maha-brahma or Karya-brahma; Samashti-sukshma-sarira-abhimani (the sum-total of all the subtle bodies); the highest created being through whom the Supreme Being projects the physical universe; cosmic mind.
Hitanadi: The common name of several nerves leading from the heart where the individual soul enters in deep sleep.
Hota: The priest who recites the Rig-veda in a sacrifice.
Hrasva: Short.
Hridaya: Heart; essential centre.
Hridaya-dhauti: Cleaning of the heart; cleaning the throat and the chest.
Hridayagranthi: The knot of the heart, viz., Avidya, Kama, and Karma.
Hridayaguha: The cave or chamber of the heart.
Hridayakamala: Lotus of the heart.
Hri: Modesty; shame felt in doing wrong action.