by Swami Sivananda
In the First Pada or Section Brahman has been shown to be the cause of the origin, sustenance and dissolution of the whole universe. It has been taught that the Supreme Brahman should be enquired into. Certain attributes such as Eternity, Omniscience, All-pervadingness, the Self of all and so on have been declared of the Brahman.
In the latter part of Section I certain terms in the Sruti such as Anandamaya, Jyoti, Prana, Akasa, etc., used in a different sense have been shown through reasoning to refer to Brahman. Certain passages of the scriptures about whose sense doubts are entertained and which contain clear characteristics of Brahman (Spashta-Brahmalinga) have been shown to refer to Brahman.
Now in this and the next Section some more passages of doubtful import wherein the characteristic marks of Brahman are not so apparent (Aspashta-Brahmalinga) are taken up for discussion. Doubts may arise as to the exact meaning of certain expressions of Sruti, whether they indicate Brahman or something else. Those expressions are taken up for discussion in this and the next Sections.
In the Second and Third Padas will be shown that certain other words and sentences in which there is only obscure or indistinct indication of Brahman apply also to Brahman as in those of the First Pada.
Doubts may arise as to the exact meaning of certain expressions of Sruti, whether they indicate Brahman or something else. These expressions are taken up for discussion in this and the next sections.
It is proved in this section that the different expressions used in different Srutis for Divine contemplation indicate the same Infinite Brahman.
In the Sandilya Vidya of the Chhandogya Upanishad it is said that as the form and the character of a person in his next life are determined by his desires and thoughts of the present one, he should constantly desire for and meditate upon Brahman who is perfect, who is Sat-Chit-Ananda, who is immortal, who is Self-luminous, who is eternal, pure, birthless, deathless, Infinite etc., so that he may become identical with Him.
(Sutras 1 to 8) shows that the being which consists of mind, whose body is breath etc., mentioned in Chhandogya Upanishad III-14 is not the individual soul, but Brahman.
(Sutras 9 and 10) decides that he to whom the Brahmanas and Kshatriyas are but food (Katha Up. I-2-25) is the Supreme Self or Brahman.
(Sutras 11 and 12) shows that the two which entered into the cave (Katha Up. I-3-1) are Brahman and the individual soul.
(Sutras 13 to 17) states that the person within the eye mentioned in Chh. Up. IV-15-1 indicates neither a reflected image nor any individual soul, but Brahman.
(Sutras 18 to 20) shows that the Inner Ruler within (Antaryamin) described in the Brihadaranyaka Upanishad III-7-3 as pervading and guiding the five elements (earth, water, fire, air, ether) and also heaven, sun, moon, stars etc., is no other than Brahman.
(Sutras 21 to 23) proves that which cannot be seen, etc., mentioned in Mundaka Upanishad I-1-6 is Brahman.
(Sutras 24 to 32) shows that the Atman, the Vaisvanara of Chhandogya Upanishad V-11-6 is Brahman.
The opinions of different sages namely Jaimini, Asmarathya and Badari have also been given here to show that the Infinite Brahman is sometimes conceived as finite and as possessing head, trunk, feet and other limbs and organs in order to facilitate divine contemplation according to the capacity of the meditator.