Brahma Sutras
by Swami Sivananda


CHAPTER ONE: SAMANVAYA ADHYAYA

Section 4: Sarvavyakhyanadhikaranam: Topic 8 (Sutra 28)

The arguments which refute the Sankhyas refute the others also.


Etena sarve vyakhyata vyakhyatah I.4.28 (134)

By this all (the doctrines concerning the origin of the world which are opposed to the Vedanta texts) are explained.

Etena: by this, by what has been said; Sarve: all; Vyakhyatah: are explained.

The argument is concluded in this Sutra.

By what has been said in the foregoing Sutras it is to be understood that the teaching of all the Srutis, even those that have not been discussed points to Brahman, the only cause of the world.

By thus disproving the doctrine of Pradhana being the cause of the world all have been refuted. By overthrowing the chief disputant others are overthrown just as by defeating the commander all the others are also defeated. Thus those who attribute creation to atoms and other theorists are all defeated.

All doctrines that speak of two separate causes are refuted. The atomic theory and other theories are not based on scriptural authority. They contradict many scriptural texts.

The Sankhya doctrine according to which the Pradhana is the cause of the universe, has in the Sutras beginning with I.1.5 been again and again brought forward and refuted.

The doctrine of Pradhana stands somewhat near to the Vedanta doctrine as it admits the non-difference of cause and effect like the Vedanta doctrine. Further, it has been accepted by some of the authors of the Dharma Sutras such as Devala and others. Moreover the Vedanta texts contain some passages which to some people who are endowed with dull intellect may appear to contain inferential marks pointing to it. For all these reasons the commentator has taken special trouble to refute the Pradhana doctrine. He has not directed his special attention to the atomic and other theories.

The repetition of the phrase 'are explained' shows that the Chapter ends here.

It is proved that Brahman is the material as well as the efficient cause of the universe.

Thus ends the Fourth Pada (Section 4) of the First Adhyaya (Chapter I) of the Brahma Sutras or the Vedanta Philosophy.

Here ends Chapter I